Feedback Study on Developing Critical Literacy among Malawian and Zambian Undergraduate University Students Using a Freirean Praxis

Matthews Tiwaone Mkandawire, Gabriel Walubita


Educators in Malawi and Zambia have always been concerned with their student’s abilities to become analytical, logical and proficient readers of texts. This has been due to the fear that there is an increased overemphasis on knowledge of the fundamental literacy skills and other basics at the expense of critical thinking. This scenario has resulted into increased criticism of the quality of the educational product in the above countries. Different studies hence have indicated that most students graduate from university in possession of varying amounts of knowledge but without understanding the purpose of that knowledge in the real world. The students’ low proficiency in critical literacy skills presents various social, cultural and educational challenges. This is also shown through improper demonstration of these skills in work place and the social world. Hence, the goal of this study was to investigate the level of critical literacy among university students. The study used the Constructivism Theory, as in the Paulo Freire’s typology and the qualitative design to collect data through in-depth interviews among students from Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources and from University of Zambia. Twenty students were randomly sampled from both universities constituting 40, but only 37 respondents were finally involved. The results revealed that most of the responses provided by the students fell in the descriptive or functional phase, the most basic level of critical literacy. These results suggest that universities should do more to promote the higher level of literacy (here after critical literacy) which would make students more rigorous, analytical and better change agents of their worlds and the worlds of others.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Paper Submission E-mail:

Journal of Education and Training Studies  ISSN 2324-805X (Print)   ISSN 2324-8068 (Online)

Copyright © Redfame Publishing Inc.

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders. 

If you have any questions, please contact: