Spiritism and Umbanda in Brazil: the Indian as a Figure of Worship and the Dilution of Identity Boundaries

Artur Cesar Isaia


Brazilian Umbanda is a religion supported by trance and worship of ancestors. This religion is very close to Spirits’, codified by Allan Kardec, the magical past and with the worship of ancestors of African origin. In contrast, the Spiritism of French origin, imported by Brazil in the second half of the 19th century, developed an identity close to literacy and science, sensitizing the sociocultural elite. With those characteristics, Spiritism tried to separate from Umbanda as Umbanda tried to get closer to Spiritism. This article  discusses the figure of worship ‘the Brazilian Indian’ in Umbanda and his presence in Spiritism itself that contradict effort of his spokespersons to remove him from everything that could resemble Afro-Brazilian religions.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v8i4.4865


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International Journal of Social Science Studies   ISSN 2324-8033 (Print)   ISSN 2324-8041 (Online)

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